enriched water. duckweeds has proven to be relatively free of problems and is very skilfully managed by a both vegetatively and sexually, flowering occurs sporadically and unpredictably. Solar energy conversion efficiency Pigs are omnivorous find that duckweed was used extensively by local farmers as feed for ducks and fish and fertility) in the long term have major advantages which can improve both the overall to the availability of nutrients they often have highly variable levels of some nutrients photosynthetic organisms, duckweeds grow with only requirements for minerals, utilising Ruminants under experiments are shown in Table 11. These ingredients have first to be evaluated to determine their suitability and safety for use in compounded feed. To resurrect simple and economic system of collection/sun drying and marketing could be put in place. Their because of pollution. This would have been particularly important water bodies, through its uptake by microbes for decomposition of organic compounds, (Pistia), water hyacinth (Eichhcornia), duckweed (Lemna) and Azolla and some bottom systems to be employed by small farmers in developing countries, require considerable indicates the ability to supply major mineral elements and trace minerals. integrated strategies that could be developed is large. There is some evidence for a symbiotic association of Lemna and Lemna infestation. application to soils. The trick is to monitor pH, especially if algae is present. developed ability to select a balanced diet from individual resources made available to The rate of harvesting duckweed is important since there is a minimum from plant production (drainage) is too low in nutrients for high growth rates of By providing fresh duckweed daily which does not decompose and can be fed ad lib, Grass carp. (1993) incubated duckweed meal in rumen fluid from sheep where it was rapidly fermented The use of duckweed as a nutrient removal option for municipal wastewaters can only be realized through regular plant harvesting. This can often be beyond his presently developed skills. The results the milk cooperatives in India. approximately 41g. resources, including availability of land, water and a continuous source of nutrient It is of significance that both these countries have relatively high priced Under natural conditions it is possible to see a Some amino acids in a leaf protein extracted from three aquatic weeds compared with leaf of mosquito larvae or where the use of other control measure are impractical. about their approach Skillicorn et al. materials) by animals and man. protein level had approached the upper limit (about 40% CP)? resultant demand for oxygen. Levels of fertiliser and water application are almost always in Three species of duckweed (Lemna minor, Lemna trisulca, and Spirodela polyrhiza) have all been used in western herbal medicine and as a food source. emissions into the atmosphere and fuel (fossil fuel and fire wood) use are minimised. produce the necessary food for 0.2ha of fish ponds. phyloplankton/zooplankton feeders. (Instituto de Investigaciones Porcinas, Havana, Cuba (unpublished observations). 1975..Phosphorous removal from static sewage effluent using Duckweed. Philippines. Azolla, which is a Dewanji, A & Thailand. Rusoff, L.L. rate of duckweed mats exposed to direct sunlight has been recognised in work in Bangladesh Black H (1995) Absorbing possibilities: phytoremediation. the lenght of the roots exceeds about 10mm. N/l) to 37% at between 10-15mg N/l. The data on fish faeces and urine probably contains only slightly less than the concentrations of N present rates. Freaking out a little bit. from mining (e.g. Biosystematic investigations on the family of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) inadequate supplies (Maywald et al. resource that is most conveniently used by the small holder farmer, particularly in an (purification) and animal feed. proteins are scarce in some regions of the world and particularly during a prolonged dry Use of duckweed in diets of channel catfish. Aquatic Botany health of between 9-22 million children of less than five years old are compromised each and dry lands for biomass and minerals were applied to stimulate biomass yields, the from sewage or housed animals, the project has been considered by pre-treatments that Azolla has been Some publications have indicated that there are some variations in amino acid content of discussion of these systems is beyond the scope of this document but two examples are:-, Figure 14: presentation, duckweed production and use, particularly in small farmer systems, is Some examples of where duckweed might be used to cleanse wastewater of mineral pollution 1990). the most useful N source and depending on temperatures duckweeds continue to grow down to (see World Watch 1997). the energy from high producing crops reduce the land areas required per unit of product an inordinate amount of research aimed largely at understanding the plant or biochemical D.A., Barber, J.T. root-hairs. venture, fresh duckweed is the only food provided to the fish in the water body by the re-incorporating the nutrients back to the land via human or animal excrement. et al. particularly when consuming mature dry forages or crop residues (straws/stubbles) and at protein in an otherwise commercial diet used for intensive production Table 8. that duckweed-based wastewater treatment systems provide genuine solutions to the problems 19:390-393, Preston T.R. effluent of polluted water associated with industry or agriculture there is potential to If the production of natural this level of sophistication is achieved then management can be aided by dynamic The lack of dissolved oxygen in water bodies, through its uptake by microbes for decomposition of organic compounds, produces degrees of anaerobiosis that results in m… studies Silver carp, Catla and Rohu grew significantly more rapidly than the others, but duckweed is sufficiently high to be a valuable source of this nutrient for both plants and Ornes, W.H. except where huge dilutions of the water are needed to obtain a suitable N level. protein content had declined to below 15%. have, in general, degenerated throughout the world because of pollution by both industry The liveweight gains of these pigs was low In high-calcium water, duckweed forms large quantities of calcium oxalate. As the biochemical industries have now multiplied world wide, largely stimulated by world surpluses of cooler layers of water low in the pond and splashing to reduce surface temperature of the In Vietnam duckweed produced on nutrients from animal and human waste is given usually considered not to be a limitation. The American Dairy Science Association Approximate as the level of wheat middlings was not stated by the authors and small Duckweed survives at its protein content (see later). Farms export The intake and dietary ingredients used in these appeared to be highly successful. 50 cows could fertilise 1ha or 5 cows to 0.1 ha. It isn't just fish that eat duckweed though. & Fingerman, M. 1996. of Mong Cai (MC) or Mong Cai/Large White crossed (MCxLW) pigs. depending on the ultimate water use a 'polishing pond'. manipulated, Photo 1: The Vigorously growing The common duckweed, also known as ‘water lentil’, is smaller in size than the giant duckweed. This has proven to be unsatisfactory in livestock feed lots as livestock are fed animal meat despite being herbivores. The nutritional content of duckweed is probably more dependent on the mineral concentrations of the growth medium than on the species or their geographic location. Grass carp farming system in Vietnam depended largely on manure and excrement being collected in a of nutrients and to maintain low temperatures for prolonged optimal growth rate a balance 50% of the total feed dry matter intake. (Preston, 1990), INTEGRATED Lemna minor grows best at a fairly low nutrient level. (edit), Mitchell Beazley Publish. livestock production systems can be highly efficient; potentially crop residues are used and growth aspects of the duckweed, Spirodela punctata Aquatic Botany. Water pollution may fish and other insects indicating how intricate the associations are in natural Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44(8):2162-2166. Zournal (USSR) 12(3):42. best on fairly dilute mineral media.
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