Below are some of the most influential philosophers, their schools of thought, and what we can learn from their forward-thinking approach. At the tender age of 24, Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900) was appointed as Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel. Confucius, also referred to as Kong Qui or K’ung Fu-tzu, was a Chinese philosopher, teacher, and political figure largely considered the father of the Eastern style of thought. Atlas Shrugged. La Morale de Confucius. He emphasized the idea that the more a person knows, the greater his or her ability to reason and make choices that will bring true happiness. Thanks for another great contribution. Psychologists trace pessimistic attitudes to emotional pain or even biology.Aaron Beck argues that depression is due to unrealistic negative views about the world. “The optimist proclaims that we live in the best of all possible worlds; and the pessimist fears this is … I take on the following three tasks. He was focused on creating a “naturalistic science of man” that delves into the psychological conditions defining human nature. In this essay I consider this pessimistic judgment from a philosophical perspective. The founder of Taoism outlined all the tenets of his globally beloved philosophy in the Tao Te Ching sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries B.C. By Jurriaan Kamp | December 2014. The Republic of Plato. Francois Arouet, better known for his pen name “Voltaire,” is largely considered one of the greatest French Enlightenment writers. As an ardent feminist, she believed both men and women should be treated as equal beings with a social mandate. Simon Blackburn earned his Ph.D. from Churchill College in 1970. What is life? Locke’s thinking emphasized the notion that we should acquire ideas through our experience of the world. It’s not an opinion about reality; it’s a starting point for dealing with … Pessimism is the antithesis of optimism, an attitude of general hopefulness, coupled with the view that there is a balance of good and pleasure in the world. First termed by Pythagoras, philosophy encompasses a huge body of knowledge. List of famous philosophers of the 20th century along with their biographies that include trivia, interesting facts, timeline and life history. The alphabetical list of philosophers is so large it had to be broken up into several pages. Indeed, to believe that unhappiness was merely a question of immediate circumstance and particular character might be seen as a crass form of optimism. Philosophy of religion: John Locke: 1632 -1704: British: Father of Classical Liberalism: John Rawls: 1921 -2002: American: A Theory of Justice (Book) John Searle: 1932: American: His contributions to the philosophy of language, philosophy of mind and social philosophy: John Stuart Mill: 1806 - … His best-known work, Critique of Pure Reason, determines the limits and scope of metaphysics, combining reason with experience that moves beyond that of traditional philosophy. Seventeenth Century Philosophers (1600's) Sir Francis Bacon English (1561-1626) Sir Francis Bacon advocated the use of inductive reasoning (as opposed to the deductive reasoning used by the … A common idiom used to illustrate optimism versus pessimism is a glass filled with water to the halfway point: an optimist is said to see the glass as half full, while a pessimist sees the glass as half empty. Socrates was a Greek philosopher and is considered the primary source of Western thought. His most notable work, Essay Concerning a Human Understanding, offers an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. Michel de Montaigne. The era saw some of greatest minds at work in the field of philosophy starting from Bertrand Russell, Gilbert Ryle, Alfred Tarski, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Leo Strauss, Ernst Cassirer, José Juan González, John Dewey and … He went on to establish the Academy in Athens, one of the first institutions of higher learning in the Western world. Theologian, Philosopher, University teacher, 20 July 1925, Algerian, French, Martiniquan. Considered one of the greatest thinkers in politics, psychology, and ethics, Aristotle learned from Plato after enrolling in his Academy at age seventeen. Kant was one of the foremost thinkers of the Enlightenment, and a large part of his work addresses the question, “What can we know?” Kant argued that we can only have knowledge of things that are possible to experience. Interestingly, the philosophy of the 20th century is known as contemporary philosophy. Pessimism, an attitude of hopelessness toward life and toward existence, coupled with a vague general opinion that pain and evil predominate in the world. * The Pessimistic Philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer * The Naturalistic Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzche * Royce's Philosophy of Loyalty * The Ethical Realism of George Edward Moore PART THREE - SOCIAL, POLITICAL, & LEGAL PHILOSOPHY * Plato's Republic * The Political Philosophy of Aristotle * The Legal Philosophy of Saint Thomas Aquinas — and some even debate whether or not he was a real or apocryphal individual. He is best remembered for his poetic trilogy, The Divine Comedy, which comprised of sections that represented three tiers of the Christian afterlife: purgatory, heaven, and hell. Further, he believes that we can know the natural, observable world, but we cannot have answers to many of the deepest questions of metaphysics. Arthur Schopenhauer, the quintessential philosophical pessimist. He was an advocate for a freethinking and liberal society. Interestingly, the philosophy of the 20th century is known as contemporary philosophy. Her most notable book, The Second Sex, discusses the treatment of women throughout history and the oppression they endured. But cheerfulness generally saddens us, whereas what we really need to shake us from gloom is the bracing wisdom of some of the world’s great pessimistic philosophers. She published countless works, both fiction and nonfiction, often having existentialist themes. Through methods of questioning, critical thinking, rational argument, and systematic presentation, philosophers have posed practical and concrete questions that have yielded new schools of thought and ways of thinking. His philosophical work and ideas were mostly presented as short stories. Does God actually exist? Critik der reinen Vernunft. Thus, pessimists only pay attention to and remember negative information. Though Voltaire’s outright skepticism of the government and church caused great controversy during his time, he remained a progressive thinker regarding issues of civil rights and advocated for the importance of freedom of religion, speech, and the right to a fair trial. Theologian, Philosopher, Non-fiction writer. It is curious, however, that he never referred to his philosophy as pessimism in any of the works he prepared for publication. His logic later influenced philosophers like Voltaire and Rousseau. His social philosophy was based on the principle of ren—loving others—and he believed this could be achieved using the Golden Rule: “What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others.”. Arthur Schopenhauer often gets overlooked when today's philosophers study philosophers of the past, and it has a lot to do with his pessimistic message. Are our emotions irrational? Sold for €180 via Forum Auctions (June 2015). Sophia Vasalou, the author of Schopenhauer and the Aesthetic Standpoint makes the case that his pessimistic philosophy is still critical. As a fixture of the history of civilization, philosophy has made a profound impact on society. In it he advances an unequivocal pessimism in response to my (qualified) notions of optimism and hope. Mary Wollstonecraft was an English writer and intellect who advocated for women’s equality within society. In contrast to rationalists such as Descartes, Hume was preoccupied with the way that passions (as opposed to reason) govern human behavior. “Montaigne likes to point out that philosophers don’t … Her best-known publication, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, is considered the first great feminist treatise. Sold for $2,125 via Swann Auction Galleries (April 2015). In the centuries that have passed, notable philosophers both young and old have produced original thoughts and made contributions to all industries and disciplines including politics, mathematics, literature, art, and science. Dante was a Medieval Italian poet and moral philosopher regarded as the father of the modern Italian language. Sold for €160 via Bubb Kuyper (May 2016). View our, 12 Famous Philosophers and Their Guiding Principles. Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher whose thinking revolved around metaphysics, a philosophical study that examines the fundamental nature of reality. Throughout his studies, he made valuable contributions to modern theories of a limited, liberal government. You can find this assertion in both popular and academic literature, yet as widespread as it is, it isn’t an accurate portrayal of his work. Pessimists, however, are often able to provide arguments that suggest that their understanding of reality is justified; as … Because he could neither read nor write, much of what we know of his life was recorded by his students Plato and Xenophon. I only dread one day at a time." Russian-American author and philosopher Ayn Rand rejected collectivist values in favor of individual self-interest, an ideal evident in her first novel We the Living. His writing is widely interpreted to be a form of pessimistic philosophy … Defensive pessimism (in other words, preparing for the worst even though rationally we know the worst won't happen ) could be a useful tool for managing anxiety, according to Wellesley College researchers. I've been looking for pessimistic movies and tv shows but they're hard to find. His teachings focused on creating ethical social relationships, setting educational standards, and promoting justice and honesty. The written records left behind, from the early works of Pythagoras to modern philosophical leaders, offer practical applications of some of the greatest intellects’ own musings. 1952) West is a heavy hitter in social philosophy, having pioneered the school of … In Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks, Friedrich Nietzsche argued that the pre-Socratic philosophers such as Anaximander, Heraclitus (called "the Weeping Philosopher") and Parmenides represented a classical form of pessimism. Voltaire was a great French philosopher and was a huge figure in the enlightenment period. We have also ensured that the ordering process is secure; you can check the security feature in the browser. The term “philosophy” derives from the Greek word philosophia which translates to a “love of wisdom,” coined by pre-Socratic thinkers such as Pythagoras in the 6th century B.C. Sample Essay on Optimistic and pessimistic philosophy We do not share your personal information with any company or person. Socrates believed that philosophy should achieve practical results for the greater well-being of society. Le provinciali o Lettere scritte da Luigi Montalto. Greek philosopher Plato was a student of Socrates and later became a teacher of Aristotle. To find philosophers by core area, field, major philosophical tradition, ethnicity, … In 1657, Pascal published Les Provinciales under the pseudonym Louis de Montalte, a series of eighteen letters that defended Jansenist over Jesuit theologies. Philosophy can be described as the rational, abstract, and methodical consideration of reality. Simone de Beauvoir is a French writer, existentialist philosopher, and social theorist who paved the way for the modern feminist movement. Similarly, of Heraclitus' philosophy of flux and strife he wrote: A Remodernist Art Movement. While Rand was a passionate advocate of the philosophy of objectivism, her political philosophy placed emphasis on individualism, the constitutional protection of individual rights to life, liberty, and property, and limited government. Dante’s important theoretical works included discussions of rhetoric surrounding moral philosophy and political thought. Philosophy has been a central fixture in the history of civilization, from ancient Greece to modern day. Sold for $780 via Swann Auction Galleries (March 2017). Plato’s logic explored justice, beauty, and equality, and contained discussions in aesthetics, politics, language, and cosmology—the science of the origin and development of the universe. Thales (c. 624-546 BCE) “The most difficult thing in life is to know yourself.” Thales of Miletus is … It is derived from the Latin pessimus (“worst”). Aristotle’s intellectual knowledge spanned every known field of science and arts, prompting him to idealize the Aristotelian syllogistic, a belief that logical argument applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions assumed to be true. He was a priori, a rational philosopher who sought knowledge logically rather than from the senses. There is a common misconception that the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche was a nihilist. What are the traits of a pessimistic person? He also propagated a religious doctrine that taught the experience of God through the heart rather than through reason, contrary to the beliefs of French philosopher René Descartes. The era saw some of greatest minds at work in the field of philosophy starting from Bertrand Russell, Gilbert Ryle, Alfred Tarski, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Leo Strauss, Ernst Cassirer, José Juan González, John Dewey and so on. Beck starts treatment by engaging in conversation with clients about their negative thoughts. For all of his successes, however, Nietzsche’s life was plagued by a hefty list of medical problems. Optimism is an attitude reflecting a belief or hope that the outcome of some specific endeavor, or outcomes in general, will be positive, favorable, and desirable. Nietzsche saw Anaximander's philosophy as the "enigmatic proclamation of a true pessimist". In the 20th century, philosophy increasingly became professionalized as the period witnessed the development of a number of new philosophical schools including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and post-structuralism. Rembrandt’s Philosopher in Meditation, a classical view of philosophy isolated from the world. The_Ebb_and_Flow. Sources: The Famous People | List 25 | The-Philosophy | Erratic Impact | History Lists | Biography | Encyclopedia Britannica. Anyway, this is a great idea. Sold for $1,300 via Swann Auction Galleries (May 2018). Cornel West (b. With this segment, explore some of the famous philosophers of the 20th century. Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher who laid the fountain for the modern theory of probabilities, a branch of mathematics concerned with the analysis of random phenomena. The term “philosophy” derives from the Greek word philosophia which translates to a “love of wisdom,” coined by pre-Socratic thinkers such as Pythagoras in the 6th century B.C. While her novels focused on existential themes, de Beauvoir’s philosophies were heavily influenced by the historical materialism of Karl Marx and the idealism of Immanuel Kant. Is love just a feeling? Modern philosophy got its start in Western Europe during the Seventeenth Century. Optimism is a fundamental attitude. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century ‘natural philosophy’, there has been a phenomenal growth in the subject. These ancient Greek philosophers were influential in laying the foundations for the modern world; searching for meaning in everyday life and shaping their musings into a system of thoughts documented in books and manuscripts, letters, plays, and other media. If yes, then why is there so much evil? What is an emotion? The study of pessimism has parallels with the study of depression. A thoughtful reader offered a rejoinder to the conclusion of my recent series on life and meaning. John Locke was an English philosopher and Enlightenment thinker who came to be known as the Father of Classical Liberalism. To look up a philosopher you know the name of, click on the first letter of their last name. The poem features an array of learning, an analysis of contemporary problems, and creativity in language and imagery. 3Simon Blackburn. The Complete Essays. Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Update your email preferences at any time. Philosophy, like any human activity, is influenced by the circumstances in which it takes place. If yes, then your mind and heart surely takes a philosophical route whenever free. His “Socratic method” laid the groundwork for Western systems of logic and philosophy, delivering a belief that through the act of questioning, the mind can manage to find truth. Pessimistic essayists and philosophers may not cast the same narrative gloom as fiction writers, but the implications of their work tend toward the universal. He wrote prolifically and became a well-respected philosopher during his lifetime. Is it better to have choices? Raphael, "School of Athens" (detail of Plato and Aristotle), 1509-1511. When someone is a pessimist, they have a cognitive-attentional bias that psychologist Aaron Beck called selective abstraction. Sold for €100 via Arenberg Auctions (December 2018). The Works of Aristotle. He is a … Sold for $4,500 via Sotheby’s (June 2005). In other words, through this bias, pessimistic people only pay attention to and retain one kind of information: the negative kind. Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City, 07 November 1879, Russian, Ukrainian, Russian, Philosopher, Psychonaut, Ethnobotanist, Author, Jurist, Geopolitician, Political Scientist, Philosopher, Writer, Novelist, Podcaster, YouTuber. level 2. Here are the famous philosophers whose teachings and theories create the shape of modern philosophy. Two Treatises of Government. the pessimistic philosophy of arthur schopenhauer the naturalistic philosophy of friedrich nietzche royces philosophy of loyalty the ethical realism of george edward moore ... world below you will find a comprehensive list of great philosophers and links to the term philosophy derives from the greek word philosophia which translates to a love of Technological, scientific, economic, political, cultural, social, etc., factors influence how philosophy is conducted and at least some of which questions philosophers take up. "Yes, it is, but I've developed a new philosophy. In it, she argued that women deserve the same fundamental rights as men and should have an education commensurate with their position in society. He produced thousands of letters, books, pamphlets, essays, plays, among other forms of writing, most of which were centered on religion and politics. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) is often cited as the greatest pessimist in the Western philosophical tradition. Wollstonecraft was an fierce advocate for women’s rights, arguing that women deserve the same fundamental rights as men and should have an education commensurate with their position in society. Film director, Writer, Actor, Poet, Screenwriter, Philosopher, Historian, Writer, University. Stanza della Segnatura, Palazzi Pontifici, Vatican. Get the latest stories, price guides and exclusive content delivered straight to your inbox. A Scottish-born historian, economist, and philosopher, Hume is often grouped with thinkers such as John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, and Sir Francis Bacon as part of a movement called British Empiricism. Philosopher, Sociologist, Anthropologist, Philosopher, Theologian, University teacher, Writer, Historian, Philosopher, University, Economist, Philosopher, Academic, University, Philosopher, Physicist, Writer, University teacher. 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