An economic cause that also occurred was how every item that was imported of … Revolution Begins! However, those profits merely whetted those Creoles’ appetites for greater free trade than the Bourbons were willing to grant. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. For other revolutions and rebellions in Latin America, see List of revolutions and rebellions; This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Latin American revolutions. Haitian Revolution 1791-1804 Toussaints Louverture “The United States appear to be destined by Providence to plague America with misery in the name of liberty” Simon Bolivar San Martin 4. Haitian Revolution: Causes and Effects. -lower classes worked really hard (as peasants or slaves) Click card to see definition . Spain’s wartime liberalization of colonial trade sharpened Creoles’ desires for greater economic self-determination. Latin American Revolution Webquest. The Spanish political tradition centred on the figure of the monarch, yet, with Charles and Ferdinand removed from the scene, the hub of all political authority was missing. Moreover, the influence of those ideologies was sharply restricted; with few exceptions only small circles of educated, urban elites had access to Enlightenment thought. The colonists did not like being taxed for things that had always had free. At stake was not only political autonomy per se but also economic interest; the Creole merchants of Buenos Aires, who initially sought the liberalization of colonial restraints on commerce in the region, subsequently tried to maintain their economic dominance over the interior. The reforms imposed by the Spanish Bourbons in the 18th century provoked great instability in the relations between the rulers and their colonial subjects in the Americas. January 30, 2017 January 31, 2017 ~ Ethan Weinstein. Over the next decade and a half, Spanish Americans had to defend with arms their movement toward independence. The Protestant Reformation had one, and money was certainly one of the major causes of the American Revolution. Buenos Aires achieved similarly mixed results in other neighbouring regions, losing control of many while spreading independence from Spain. Its task, however, was formidable. In May 1810 prominent Creoles in Buenos Aires, having vied with peninsulars for power in the intervening years, forced the last Spanish viceroy there to consent to a cabildo abierto, an extraordinary open meeting of the municipal council and local notables. More troubling still were the bitter rivalries emerging between Buenos Aires and other provinces. With the Spanish king and his son Ferdinand taken hostage by Napoleon, Creoles and peninsulars began to jockey for power across Spanish America. In Mexico City and Montevideo caretaker governments were the work of loyal peninsular Spaniards eager to head off Creole threats. A constituent assembly meeting in 1813 adopted a flag, anthem, and other symbols of national identity, but the apparent unity disintegrated soon afterward. In 1838 the Central American Federation was formed when the independent states of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Ni… This gives the Latin American people the urge to overcome their Spanish... As Spain's power weakens, the country tries to restore authority in their colonies. After its revolution of May 1810, the region was the only one to resist reconquest by loyalist troops throughout the period of the independence wars. The Latin American Wars of Independence were the various revolutions that took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America. Creole participants in conspiracies against Portugal and Spain at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century showed familiarity with such European Enlightenment thinkers as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Montesquieu, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Distinct interests and long-standing resentment of the viceregal capital led different regions in the south to pursue separate destinies. The first serious revolt in the war for Latin America independence began in Mexico, by Miguel De Hidalgo, a parish priest, who rallied the peasants, the indigenous people and the metizos (people of mixed European and Native American descent) against Spanish colonial rule on September 16, 1810. RECAP! Occurrences in Europe in the early 19th century created a deep political divide between Spain and its American colonies. Between 1808 and 1826 all of Latin America except the Spanish colonies of Cuba and Puerto Rico slipped out of the hands of the Iberian powers who had ruled the region since the conquest. Other revolutions were happening and the people observed this. Others did not suffer during the second half of the 18th century; indeed, the gradual loosening of trade restrictions actually benefited some Creoles in Venezuela and certain areas that had moved from the periphery to the centre during the late colonial era. CAUSES. More generally, Creoles reacted angrily against the crown’s preference for peninsulars in administrative positions and its declining support of the caste system and the Creoles’ privileged status within it. When the Spanish colonial officials proved ineffective against the invasion, a volunteer militia of Creoles and peninsulars organized resistance and pushed the British out. Haitian Revolution. Final destruction of loyalist resistance in the highlands required the entrance of northern armies. When the Spanish crown entered into an alliance with France in 1795, it set off a series of developments that opened up economic and political distance between the Iberian countries and their American colonies. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Despite claiming such a role since 1813, he … Causes: Political (3) Click again to see term . Cause of this revolution to occur because of people being inspired of colonies/people gaining independence and reforming themselves politically by revolting against their corrupted … Having benefited from colonial monopolies and fearful of the kind of social violence that the late 18th-century revolt had threatened, many Peruvian Creoles were not anxious to break with Spain. The main cause of Latin American revolution was the self-sufficiency of countries. During 1808–10 juntas emerged to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII. With these figures of legitimate authority in his power, the French ruler tried to shatter Spanish independence. IMPACTS Viñales, Cuba of the LATIN AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS 2. Absolute monarchs in Europe encouraged the movements. In 1807 the Spanish king, Charles IV, granted passage through Spanish territory to Napoleon’s forces on their way to invade Portugal. Across the Río de la Plata from Buenos Aires, Montevideo and its surroundings became the separate Estado Oriental (“Eastern State,” later Uruguay). Two years later it produced a new, liberal constitution that proclaimed Spain’s American possessions to be full members of the kingdom and not mere colonies. The Enlightenment clearly informed the aims of dissident Creoles and inspired some of the later, great leaders of the independence movements across Latin America. Foreign Influences Numerous foreign influences inspired and fueled the Latin American independence movement. The effort only served to harden the position of Creole rebels. One of the most significant reasons the revolutionaries of Latin America wanted to revolt was because they felt they were being taxed too much. With Chile as his base, San Martín then faced the task of freeing the Spanish stronghold of Peru. Causes of Revolution. Starting with their political problems, the colonies were run by Spanish governors who were dictators. The small group of foreign volunteers that the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda brought to his homeland failed to incite the populace to rise against Spanish rule. Arriving in Rio de Janeiro with some 15,000 officials, nobles, and other members of his court, John transformed the Brazilian colony into the administrative centre of his empire. From there, troops under northern generals finally stamped out the last vestiges of loyalist resistance in Peru and Bolivia by 1826. Just prior to the 1600’s we see the use of matchlock rifles. After three centuries of colonial rule, independence came rather suddenly to most of Spanish and Portuguese America. Still, these ideas were not, strictly speaking, causes of independence. Many Creoles (those of Spanish parentage but who were born in America) felt Bourbon policy to be an unfair attack on their wealth, political power, and social status. Slavery Abolished California … Causes: Economic (2) Click again to see term . After establishing naval dominance in the region, the southern movement made its way northward. Spain weakens in power. Between 1808 and 1826 all of Latin America except the Spanish colonies of Cuba and Puerto Rico slipped out of the hands of the Iberian powers who had ruled the region since the conquest. The immediate effect of that concession was to send the Portuguese ruler, Prince Regent John, fleeing in British ships to Brazil. Since Spain had rule over the Latin American countries, the Creoles were one of many groups that led the struggle for Latin Independence. In 1806 a British expeditionary force captured Buenos Aires. Mercantilist system did not favor colonies. The Latin American Wars of Independence, which took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, were deeply influenced by the American and French Revolutions and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America. 1819 - 1831 5. Caught between the loyalism of Spanish officers and the imperialist intentions of Buenos Aires and Portuguese Brazil, the regional leader José Gervasio Artigas formed an army of thousands of gauchos. Slaves wanted more freedoms and voices. Tap again to see term . The movements that liberated Spanish South America arose from opposite ends of the continent. The rapidity and timing of that dramatic change were the … From the south proceeded another powerful force, this one directed by the more circumspect José de San Martín. From the start Buenos Aires’ intention of bringing all the former viceregal territories under its control set off waves of discord in the outlying provinces. For example the creoles were unhappy with their social status. The Latin American Revolutions differed with the French Revolution because Latin America was dealing with colonialism and imperialism by foreign countries. After difficult conquests of their home regions, the two movements spread the cause of independence through other territories, finally meeting on the central Pacific coast. The relentless war for freedom of Latin American colonies became vivid in 1809. After initial victories there, the forces from Buenos Aires retreated, leaving the battle in the hands of local Creole, mestizo, and Indian guerrillas. When Napoleon turned on his Spanish allies in 1808, events took a disastrous turn for Spain and its dominion in the Americas. In 1820 troops waiting in Cádiz to be sent as part of the crown’s military campaigns revolted, forcing Ferdinand to agree to a series of liberal measures. Having had a taste of freedom during their political and economic isolation from the mother country, Spanish Americans did not easily consent to a reduction of their power and autonomy. -lower classes worked really ninsularshard (as peasants or slaves) -Spain controlled all trade, forced colonist to only buy Spanish product. In cities throughout the region, Creole frustrations increasingly found expression in ideas derived from the Enlightenment. Essentially, it began as a disagreement over the way Great Britain governed the colonies and the way the colonies thought they should be treated. In the process he set off a political crisis that swept across both Spain and its possessions. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. George Washington sent troops and supplies to help the revolutions get started. Unable to preserve any sort of monopoly on trade, the Spanish crown was forced to loosen the restrictions on its colonies’ commerce. In alliance with Chilean patriots under the command of Bernardo O’Higgins, San Martín’s army restored independence to a region whose highly factionalized junta had been defeated by royalists in 1814. Some main groups that had a heavy impact on the Revolution were the Creoles, and the Peninsulars. Shortly after Charles had abdicated in favour of his son Ferdinand, Napoleon had them both imprisoned. After many years of semi-autonomous local rule and limited metropolitan intervention, new bureaucratic reforms in the eighteenth century caused some discomfort in the American colonies. The indigenous world and the word “Indian”, Conquest society in the central mainland areas, Institutional, legal, and intellectual developments, Spanish America in the age of the Bourbons, The north and the culmination of independence, Political models and the search for authority, Political and economic transitions, 1850–70, The United States and Latin America in the Cold War era, Latin America at the end of the 20th century. Two other European developments further dashed the hopes of Creoles, pushing them more decisively toward independence. Causes: Political (3) Click again to see term . In Santiago, Caracas, Bogotá, and other cities, by contrast, it was Creoles who controlled the provisional juntas. Moreover, the Cortes would not concede permanent free trade to the Americans and obstinately refused to grant any degree of meaningful autonomy to the overseas dominions. Click card to see definition . By the late eighteenth century, the Spanish colonies had a thriving class of Creoles... No Free Trade. Thanks to … Leaders in Latin America tended to shy away from the more socially radical European doctrines. One of the first causes of the Independence of Latin America was the Creoles. The main thrust of the southern independence forces met much greater success on the Pacific coast. Additionally, France’s involvement in the American Revolution, along with extravagant spending practices by King Louis XV… European diplomatic and military events provided the final catalyst that turned Creole discontent into full-fledged movements for Latin American independence. In 1810 a Cortes (Parliament) emerged in Cádiz to represent both Spain and Spanish America. “Up until then, each colony had its own government which decided which taxes they would have, and collected them,” explainsWillard Sterne Randall, a professor emeritus of history at Champlain College and author of numerous works on … The year 1814 saw the restoration of Ferdinand to the throne and with it the energetic attempt to reestablish Spanish imperial power in the Americas. A political cause that occurred was the implantation of legislatures on the colonies. The Latin countries were very multi cultural. The causes for revolution were the ideas of equality and that people wanted more say in the government system. Causes of the Latin American Revolution Lack of Respect for the Creoles. _. Spain goes and sets up colonies in the Americas. 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